Using a panel dataset of 35 MOOC platforms composed of roughly 6,000 MOOCs and 1,000 educational partners during 2012-2016, the following work studies business model innovation dynamics in the MOOCs evolution space.
Rothe, Täuscher and Basole (ECIS 2018), Competition between platform ecosystems: a longitudinal study of MOOC platforms
Platforms with an initial ecosystem advantage (such as Coursera) can compete sustainably by imitating dominating business models implemented by other competing platforms. Also, platforms with an initially small network (e.g. Future Learn, Udacity or edX) can increase market share by aligning their partners around a unique value proposition or by focusing on a niche market segment. However, reaping the benefits of any business model innovations implemented may be significantly delayed (e.g. it took more than a year for Udacity to change its online community/ecosystem).